Banche, Renzi: in Italia non ci sarà alcun bail-in

By | agosto 3, 2016

Banche, Renzi: in Italia non ci sarà alcun bail-in
Stefano Carofei / Imagoeconomica

Presidente, partiamo dalle banche. Lei ha detto che gli stress test sono stati una grande successo per l’Italia. Perché?
Penso che gli stress test mostrino che le banche italiane non sono il problema dell’Europa. E questa è la novità. Se pensiamo agli ultimi 12 mesi, quante volte abbiamo letto che le banche italiane erano il problema dell’Europa, ma questo non è vero e i risultati degli esami lo mostrano chiaramente. Abbiamo la migliore banca europea, Intesa Sanpaolo, e abbiamo 4 banche su 5 in buona salute. Certo c’è un problema, quello legato al Monte dei Paschi, ed è un fatto risaputo. Abbiamo lavorato duramente per trovare una soluzione non pubblica, di mercato, per dare a questa grande banca una prospettiva e un’opportunità, una volta ripulita dai crediti deteriorati. Quindi sono soddisfatto dei risultati. Però penso che ci serva una diversa strategia per il futuro delle istituzioni europee perché il messaggio è chiaro: è il momento di creare una nuova direzione economica in Europa. Questo è il mio punto di vista.

 

Come ha detto, Mps ha trovato una soluzione di mercato ma ci sono state ricapitalizzazioni in passato. Perché gli investitori dovrebbero credere che questa sia la soluzione definitiva?
Perché per la prima volta abbiamo eliminato il problema dei non performing loan. Lasciatemi essere davvero chiaro: sappiamo che l’economia italiana ha sofferto molto per come sono andati gli ultimi 5, forse 10 anni. Nei primi 50 anni del dopoguerra quella italiana è stata l’economia con la maggior crescita d’Europa, ma dopo Maastricht l’Italia è diventata il problema delle istituzioni europee. Particolarmente nell’ultimo periodo – per colpa della classe politica italiana che non è riuscita a raggiungere gli obbiettivi di riforma previsti – l’Italia è finita all’ultimo posto in termini di crescita e disoccupazione. Inoltre in quest’ultimo periodo le banche italiane si sono trovate senza supporto pubblico. Una decisione secondo me sbagliata, ma presa dai miei predecessori. E senza supporto pubblico il livello di crediti deteriorati non ha fatto che aumentare. Ma è normale se hai dieci anni di crisi e tre di recessione, come è normale per le banche europee e italiane avere molti npl. Ora, per la prima volta, Monte dei Paschi si ritrova senza questi crediti, perché l’operazione condotta con il fondo Atlante ha ripulito tutti gli npl nella banca. Quindi questa è la fine.

 

Si tratta comunque solo di una perte degli npl presenti nell’intero settore bancario.
Io penso che il modo migliore di risolvere il problema degli npl sia la crescita. E questa è la mia priorità, il mio sogno e il mio incubo. Ci penso ogni giorno: crescita, crescita, crescita. Sono diventato primo ministro dopo due anni di recessione e il mio primo obiettivo non è stato il jobs act o la legge di riforma delle banche popolari, o la riforma costituzionale, o la legge elettorale. La vera priorità e il primo risultato da raggiungere – per me – è stato quello di vedere l’Italia che ritorna a crescere. Detto questo, il modello di Atlante può dimostrare chiaramente agli investitori internazionali e ai mercati, che la situazione degli npl non è il disastro che è stato raccontato negli ultimi mesi.

 

Ma non è sufficiente. Atlante non è abbastanza grande per risolvere l’intero problema.
Personalmente sono più preoccupato per il futuro delle istituzioni europee che per gli npl italiani, e per la situazione di altre banche europee, dei loro strumenti finanziari.

 

Sta parlando della Germania?
Certo, anche della Germania. La nostra economia è molto molto vicina a quella tedesca, in particolare lo è quella del nostro Nord est. Sfortunatamente noi abbiamo due Italia diverse. C’è l’Italia del Nord, che è assolutamente vicina alla Germania e alla sua economia, con performance perfino migliori in molti campi. E c’è l’Italia del Sud, dove la priorità è quella di garantire legalità, trasparenza, processi corretti contro la corruzione e l’inefficienza della pubblica amministrazione. Quindi sì, sono preoccupato per le altre banche, ma voglio anche dire che gli npl italiani in questo momento ammontano più o meno a 80 miliardi, contro un prodotto interno lordo che è venti volte tanto. Per il resto d’accordo, diciamo che abbiamo un problema. E dobbiamo anche ridurre i tempi della giustizia civile. E che questa è una priorità per il governo. Abbiamo già ottenuto risultati ma dobbiamo mettere mano al pregresso di questi anni. Non è però un problema orribile. Io sono d’accordo con il ceo di Intesa, Carlo Messina, quando dice che i nostri risparmi privati sono di alta qualità. Risparmi da tripla A.

 

Può garantire che nessun piccolo azionista delle banche italiane o detentore di bond sarà coinvolto nel bail-in. Lei finora ha combattuto per questo a Bruxelles.
Sì, ho combattuto per questo e anche per evitare rischi per gli investitori istituzionali, perché penso che sia tempo di aprire al mercato le porte dell’Italia, dando garanzie sia per i piccoli investitori sia per quelli istituzionali.

 

Quindi non ci saranno bail-in in Italia?
R. Personalmente non sono d’accordo su questa legge europea, che ovviamente rispetto. Non sono d’accordo perché credo che la priorità del momento sia dare fiducia ai cittadini e se continuiamo sulla strada del bail-in rischiamo di toglierla la fiducia. E questo è un errore. Non son neanche d’accordo con le norme sull’austerity in Europa ma come presidente del Consiglio dei ministri e primo ministro ridurrò il livello di deficit come non è mai stato fatto dai miei predecessori, questo per dire che rispetto comunque le norme. Però il mio punto di vista è che se l’Europa vuole essere protagonista dei mercati internazionali, come i nostri competitori americani o asiatici, ha bisogno di un rinnovato sentimento di fiducia dei cittadini europei. Quindi non posso entrare nel dettaglio ma posso dire che l’Italia sta battendosi con tutte le sue forze per evitare un bail-in, perché anche un’eventuale versione soft di quest’ultimo potrebbe essere un disastro per la credibilità e la fiducia. Questa è la ragione per la quale mi sono battuto per la soluzione di mercato. E ce n’è anche un’altra: cancellare l’ingerenza politica nelle banche. Lasciatemi essere chiaro: in Italia per un lungo periodo, per tante volte e in tanti anni, i politici sono arrivati ovunque. La politica decide le carriere nelle università, i ruoli nelle banche, qualsiasi cosa. Io credo in un modello differente di democrazia, molto simile a quello anglosassone. Un modello nel quale noi ci occupiamo del governo e vogliamo, certo, che si rispettino le leggi, ma le banche devono essere nelle mani del mercato, non in quelle dei politici, particolarmente di quelli locali, e questa è la ragione per la quale ho varato la riforma delle banche popolari.

 

continua a leggere su Milano Finanza

Source: Partito Democratico

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