NO al pareggio di bilancio in Costituzione, le proposte M5S (08-03-2017)

By | marzo 8, 2017

NO al pareggio di bilancio in Costituzione, le proposte M5S (08-03-2017)
monti-napolitano.jpg

Il M5S ha da poco presentato al Senato un disegno di legge costituzionale per l’abolizione del pareggio di bilancio (art.81 Costituzione), a prima firma Elisa Bulgarelli. Il ddl segue quello della deputata Tiziana Ciprini e chiude il cerchio di una battaglia ormai storica del movimento. Senza sovranità fiscale, infatti, non possono esistere né democrazia né giustizia sociale e la riforma Monti del 2012, recependo il dettato del Fiscal Compact, ha ceduto questa sovranità ad un’entità sovranazionale lontanissima dalle istanze popolari.

Ritorniamo allora un momento alla riforma Monti, votata e sostenuta nel silenzio quasi assoluto della stampa da tutti i partiti della scorsa legislatura, Pd e Lega compresi. Il Governo Monti ha sostituito il testo originale dell’art.81 della Costituzione con un nuovo dettato, di cui riportiamo il passaggio decisivo:

Il ricorso all’indebitamento è consentito solo al fine di considerare gli effetti del ciclo economico e, previa autorizzazione delle Camere adottata a maggioranza assoluta dei rispettivi componenti, al verificarsi di eventi eccezionali

Il problema è che quanto sono grandi gli effetti del ciclo economico e quanto sono gravi gli eventi eccezionali lo decide la Commissione Europea, sottostimando regolarmente entrambi. Per il terremoto ci è stato concesso 1 miliardo, quando i danni ammontano a 23 miliardi di euro, mentre sul ciclo economico i tecnici di Bruxelles truccano i conti, manipolando il parametro dell’output gap. Di fatto, quindi, non c’è terremoto o crisi che tenga: lo Stato deve tendere in ogni caso verso il pareggio di bilancio, come sta accadendo.

Sembra ragionevole, ma solo per chi pensi che lo Stato debba comportarsi come una qualsiasi famiglia o azienda. Per fortuna, invece, lo Stato è (o dovrebbe essere) molto di più. Se non vi fidate del M5S, potreste dare ascolto al premio Nobel per l’economia Paul Krugman, che sul tema ha scritto un breve saggio intitolato per l’appunto “Un Paese non è un’azienda”.

Il fatto è che uno Stato sovrano ha la possibilità di emettere la moneta che serve al settore privato dell’economia (famiglie, imprese, sistema creditizio) immettendola poi nel circuito economico attraverso la spesa pubblica a deficit. Questa sovranità sull’emissione monetaria è tanto più utile quanto più l’economia privata è in crisi. Se il tasso di disoccupazione è molto alto, le imprese sono soffocate dalla tassazione e le banche rischiano di fallire mettendo in pericolo i risparmi dei cittadini, lo Stato DEVE intervenire in deroga al principio del pareggio di bilancio, perché è proprio attraverso quel deficit pubblico che il settore privato avrà la materia prima per risollevarsi.

Il circuito virtuoso è molto semplice:

1) lo Stato spende a deficit finanziando i suoi titoli di Stato anche attraverso l’emissione monetaria della sua Banca centrale

2) attraverso il deficit pubblico lo Stato dà il via ad un programma di investimenti e di sostegno al reddito delle famiglie (ad esempio un reddito minimo garantito accompagnato da una drastica riduzione dell’Irpef e dell’Iva)

3) le famiglie spendono buona parte del nuovo reddito, garantendo alle imprese nazionali una domanda maggiore e quindi maggiori profitti

4) i profitti delle imprese si traducono in nuovi investimenti, che producono nuova occupazione

5) la nuova occupazione alimenta il circolo virtuoso, producendo nuova domanda, nuovi profitti e nuovi investimenti privati

6) la ripresa dei redditi da lavoro e dei profitti aumenta la base imponibile, così che il gettito fiscale aumenta senza che aumentino le aliquote. Il debito produttivo, in breve, si ripaga da sé

Se l’economia si surriscalda troppo (piena occupazione, inflazione eccessiva) lo Stato sovrano può raffreddarla riducendo il deficit o addirittura annullandolo. Solo in questo caso il pareggio di bilancio è virtuoso.

Si capirà ora perché la riforma Monti eterodiretta dalla Commissione Europea è stata una follia. Lo Stato ha perso la sua sovranità fiscale e quindi la possibilità di intervenire quando l’economia privata è in crisi. Il pareggio di bilancio ha sostituito di fatto i princìpi fondamentali della nostra Costituzione: lavoro, reddito dignitoso, libera iniziativa privata.

Una sentenza 276/2016 della Corte Costituzionale conferma senza ombra di dubbio quanto scritto sopra. Si legge infatti che “è la garanzia dei diritti incomprimibili ad incidere sul bilancio, e non l’equilibrio di questo a condizionarne la doverosa erogazione”.

Con le proposte a firma Bulgarelli e Ciprini il M5S vuole “solo” ripristinare l’art. 81 precedente alla riforma Monti e quindi il nostro dettato costituzionale.

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Source: Movimento5stelle – parlamento

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