Manconi: “Ma sul fine vita il principio dell’autodeterminazione non può essere contestato”

By | dicembre 15, 2017

Manconi: “Ma sul fine vita il principio dell’autodeterminazione non può essere contestato”

Testo intervento

durante la discussione in Aula

 

Nel corso di questa discussione c`è stato chi, come il collega Compagna, mi ha accusato garbatamente di coltivare un`idea assoluta, se non assolutista, dell`autodeterminazione dell`individuo e, di conseguenza, del paziente. E ciò per aver citato un autore la cui riflessione è fondamento essenziale del moderno pensiero liberale. E mi riferisco a John Stuart Mill quando afferma e argomenta il principio, secondo il quale “su se stesso, sul proprio corpo e sulla propria mente l`individuo è sovrano”. Sostenere questo significa, forse, coltivare un`idea assoluta dell`autodeterminazione? Il senatore Compagna sbaglia se ritiene che io indulga a una metafisica dell`indipendenza individuale o a una sorta di umanitarismo estremo, egotico e narcisistico, che si fa ubris. Niente affatto. E non sono tentato dalla vanità dell`autosufficienza o della superbia superomistica del soggettivismo eroico e strenuo. Penso e sento l`esatto contrario. Proprio perché ho una concezione tragica dell`esistenza e un`idea dell`essere umano come creatura imperfetta e vulnerabile, non posso che nutrire un`antropologia pessimista, dove il combattimento umano nelle circostanze del fine vita deve misurarsi con due limiti profondi: l`impotenza, oltre una certa soglia, dei trattamenti terapeutici, delle scienze mediche e delle biotecnologie, da un lato; e l`inadeguatezza di quella che possiamo chiamare la “consolazione umana”, dall`altro.
Dunque, la categoria di autodeterminazione non va considerata come un concetto astratto. Va inserita al contrario nel contesto storico-sociale e nella dimensione dell`esperienza umana e delle biografie individuali. Autodeterminazione, quindi, come risorsa della vita di relazione e non certo come negazione di essa. Questo è un punto essenziale. La “solitudine del morente” – ecco la mia antropologia pessimista – è mitigabile, ma è un dato che non può essere eluso. La solitudine del morente è una sconfitta inevitabile. La mia idea (e la mia speranza) di fine vita, immagina una rete di relazioni attive e “calde” fino all`ultimo. Una possibilità, cioè, di relazioni, rapporti, scambi che attribuiscano significato e qualità – pur esile, esilissima – alla sopravvivenza anche in condizioni estreme. Ma, qui sta il nodo più crudele, anche questa forma di vita – che è certamente “degna di essere vissuta” – può
esaurirsi. E in assenza di ogni capacità di comunicazione e di interazione, può perdere senso. Fino a quell`annichilimento del corpo e dello spirito prodotto dal dolore non lenibile e dalle sofferenze non sedabili. E` qui, è allora, che prevale il peso intollerabile delle “cose ultime”; che si esaurisce la possibilità della “consolazione”; e che il significato del vivere e dello stesso sopravvivere si consuma. E` in questa condizione finale, quando la rete dei rapporti familiari, amicali, personali e sociali vacilla e non regge più, e non offre né conforto né consiglio, è in questo stato di smarrimento che si pone la domanda inesorabile: in ultima istanza, chi decide per me? E la risposta non può che essere una: io, e solo io. E tragicamente, solo io.
Se questo è vero, il principio dell`autodeterminazione, per chi lo voglia rivendicare, non può essere contestato. Da questo principio irrinunciabile discende la concezione stessa di Disposizioni anticipate di trattamento e di “testamento biologico” e i suoi corollari e i suoi vincoli, compresa la figura del fiduciario. Di tutto questo stiamo parlando, dunque, quando parliamo di “testamento biologico”. Dobbiamo esserne consapevoli.

Manconi: “Ma sul fine vita il principio dell’autodeterminazione non può essere contestato” su Senatori PD.

Source: Senatori PD

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