Fedeli: “Tornare a studiare la Storia, per capire il presente”

By | dicembre 16, 2017

Fedeli: “Tornare a studiare la Storia, per capire il presente”
di Valeria Fedeli, Ministra dell’Istruzione
 
Caro direttore, ho letto con interesse l’articolo su Sette di Gian Antonio Stella: «Ministra Fedeli, che ne dice: torniamo a studiare la Storia?».
Visto che si tratta di un interrogativo rivolto direttamente a me, non posso non replicare. Intanto apprezzo un piccolo segnale «tipografico» nel titolo: l’uso della lettera maiuscola. La Storia, infatti, merita pienamente la distinzione singolare di una maiuscola. Il che significa che concordo pienamente con lo spirito dell’articolo di Stella del quale, peraltro, apprezzo il taglio brillante e, per certi versi, quasi paradossale a cui ci ha abituato in tanti suoi interventi.
La Storia è una cosa seria. Sia chiaro, però: la Storia in quanto metodo critico di percezione dei fatti, prima ancora che come cognizione degli eventi, prima ancora che, come si suol dire, storia «evenemenziale».
Su questo posso rassicurare Stella. La porzione iniziale delle indicazioni nazionali del Miur che riguardano gli obiettivi di apprendimento per i Licei insiste esattamente su questo. Le cito: «al termine del percorso…lo studente… sa leggere e valutare le diverse fonti; guarda alla storia come a una dimensione significativa per comprendere, attraverso la discussione critica e il confronto fra una varietà di prospettive e interpretazioni, le radici del presente».
Da secoli quanti hanno riflettuto sui fenomeni storici hanno accuratamente distinto tra la mera successione dei fatti, da una parte, e l’interpretazione che ne diamo, dall’altra. I programmi della Scuola giustamente insistono sulla seconda.
È la capacità di comprendere, di elaborare i documenti che provengono dal passato l’obiettivo del metodo critico, di quel metodo critico che dobbiamo trasmettere alle platee delle studentesse e degli studenti.
A tutti i livelli: dai primi gradini dell’Istruzione primaria fino all’Università. Dirò di più. C’è sempre più bisogno di Storia. Specie in questa fase buia della contemporaneità, fatta di stereotipi, di violenze, di monologhi sterili. Tutti comportamenti, per definizione, «anti-storici», laddove la Storia è dialogo, è comprensione di senso, è scoperta dell’alterità.
Torno all’articolo di Stella. Se posso permettermi non è tanto o, meglio, non è solo l’ignoranza delle date delle battaglie della nostra Indipendenza nazionale o dell’anno di nascita dei personaggi che hanno costellato il tragico «secolo breve» a doverci preoccupare. L’aneddotica rammentata da Stella è ben nota, purtroppo. A me preoccupa ancor di più che la lezione della Storia non penetri nelle coscienze delle nostre ragazze e dei nostri ragazzi in modo più profondo. Che non ne informi e non ne educhi il modo di osservare i fatti, tutti i fatti, quella storia «che tutto intorno ci preme» come amava dire un grande storico e Ministro dell’Istruzione, Benedetto Croce.
Osservare e non semplicemente vedere; capire e non solo percepire: questa è la missione dell’insegnamento della Storia, a mio avviso. Ho citato Croce. Potremmo quasi capovolgere il suo notissimo principio e dire  – Stella che ne è maestro, mi perdonerà qui un mio di paradosso – che è lo studio del passato che stimola quello del presente.
Un tale valore è anche alla base della coscienza democratica; è un valore fondante che in molti Paesi dell’Europa stenta pericolosamente ad affermarsi ma che io intendo, invece, rafforzare il più possibile all’interno della nostra filiera educativa. La Storia è una priorità del mio Ministero. Ma, attenzione, si tratta certo di «tornare a studiare la Storia», ma per «arrivare a capire la Storia». E questo si fa se si riesce a far apprendere a studentesse e studenti il valore della Storia come strumento per interpretare anche i processi ora in atto.
Possono farlo docenti sempre più preparati (il nuovo modello di reclutamento recentemente approvato va in questa direzione) e che usufruiscano di un costante aggiornamento. Docenti il cui stesso valore, se posso permettermi, sia anch’esso riconosciuto, socialmente ed economicamente.
Un’ultima considerazione: a proposito di costante aggiornamento, sarebbe opportuno che lo studio della Storia non si fermasse tra le pareti delle aule scolastiche ma prosegua anche lungo i percorsi professionali. Questo, se non vogliamo sentirci rispondere anche da un adulto: «Hitler chi?».
L’articolo Fedeli: “Tornare a studiare la Storia, per capire il presente” proviene da Partito Democratico.
Source: Partito Democratico

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