Perché è sbagliato riportare la salma di Vittorio Emanuele III in Italia

By | dicembre 18, 2017

Perché è sbagliato riportare la salma di Vittorio Emanuele III in Italia

A 80 anni dalle leggi razziali, da quel maledetto 18 settembre 1938, quest’anno avremmo dovuto ricordare quel nefasto anniversario. Proprio in questo momento in cui le recrudescenze fasciste e razziste attanagliano il nostro Paese diviso, in cui la caccia al diverso e la discriminazione razziale diventano la cifra con cui si condurrà da qui a breve la prossima campagna elettorale, arriva la notizia del ritorno in Italia della salma di Vittorio Emanuele III, che quelle leggi razziste le votò.

di Andrea Alba

Su tale decisione si è scagliata Noemi Di Segni, Presidente dell’Unione delle Comunità Ebraiche Italiane, che ha dichiarato: “In un’epoca segnata dal progressivo smarrimento di Memoria e valori fondamentali, il rientro della salma del re Vittorio Emanuele III in Italia non può che generare profonda inquietudine, anche perché giunge alla vigilia di un anno segnato da molti anniversari”, tra cui “gli 80 anni dalla firma delle Leggi Razziste”. “Bisogna che lo si dica chiaramente, in ogni sede: Vittorio Emanuele III fu complice di quel regime fascista di cui non ostacolò mai l’ascesa e la violenza apertamente manifestatasi sin dai primi mesi del Ventennio.

Nessun tribunale ebbe mai modo di processarlo, per quelle gravi colpe. Cercheremo di colmare questo vuoto con una specifica iniziativa, nel prossimo mese di gennaio. Per chi oggi vuole farne un eroe o un martire della Storia, per chi ancora chiede una sua solenne traslazione al Pantheon, non può che esserci una risposta: nessun onore pubblico per chi porta il peso di decisioni che hanno gettato discredito e vergogna su tutto il paese. L’Italia non può e non deve dimenticare”.

Del più longevo monarca di casa Savoia urge ricordare almeno un paio di passaggi cruciali che condizionarono negativamente la storia del nostro Paese lungo il secolo breve. Il sovrano in questione, contrariamente alla scelta di Umberto I che era stato un sostenitore della Triplice Alleanza (con Germania e Austria), decise di firmare il patto di Londra nel 1915, che ci condusse dentro i fuochi della Grande Guerra, malgrado la maggioranza parlamentare fosse quasi del tutto neutralista. Una decisione che peserà moltissimo sugli sviluppi successivi del Paese e che condizionerà anche l’ascesa del fascismo, visto che dietro quella scelta c’era tutta la retorica dell’irredentismo e della vittoria mutilata e che evidentemente fu cavalcata da Vittorio Emanuele III. Un ruolo assolutamente strumentale, che mostrerà il suo lato reazionario anche dinanzi alla Marcia su Roma (27-29 Ottobre 1922), quando il legittimo governo Facta ratificò lo stato d’assedio, ma il sovrano si rifiutò di firmarlo, regalando nei fatti la possibilità ai fascisti di raggiungere il loro obiettivo. E l’elenco di malefatte è ancora lungo e tortuoso.

Egli dichiarò, dinanzi alle schiaccianti prove delle responsabilità del regime fascista per la morte di Matteotti del 1924, “Sono cieco e sordo. I miei occhi sono la Camera e il Senato.” Stette a guardare anche dinanzi alle leggi fascistissime, approvate nel 1925. Quando la follia fascista ci condusse verso l’esperienza coloniale, egli si dichiarò Re di Etiopia, avallando la violazione della Convenzione di Ginevra che il regime stava compiendo. Le già citate leggi razziali le firmò contravvenendo ad uno dei principi cardine di casa Savoia, che già nella Costituzione del 1848 avevano fatto della libertà di culto dei sudditi uno dei loro punti fermi. Inutile dire che l’anno successivo si dichiarò, con la stessa nonchalance che lo contraddistinse lungo la prima metà del novecento, Re d’Albania.

All’indomani dalla firma dell’armistizio, il Re fuggì da Roma alla volta di Brindisi, facilitando il lavoro di occupazione da parte dei tedeschi e lasciando l’esercito allo sbaraglio dinanzi alla ferocia di Kesserling. Quest’ultimo ebbe a dire che una difesa organizzata dell’esercito alleato avrebbe impedito l’occupazione nazista della Capitale. Nel porto di Ortona è ancora oggi possibile leggere questa epigrafe, a futura memoria e con una previsione circa l’imminente fine della monarchia:

«Da questo porto la notte del 9 settembre 1943
L’ultimo Re d’Italia fuggì
Con la Corte e con Badoglio
Consegnando la martoriata patria
alla tedesca rabbia.
Ortona Repubblicana
dalle sue macerie e dalle sue ferite
grida eterna maledizione
alla monarchia dei tradimenti
del fascismo e della rovina d’Italia
anelando giustizia
dal Popolo e dalla Storia
nel nome santo di Repubblica. 9-9-1945»

Da Brindisi egli provò a tenere in piedi il Regno d’Italia, o per lo meno il principio monarchico, ormai schernito e screditato agli occhi del popolo italiano. Morì il giorno dopo la ratifica della Costituzione e della sua XIII disposizione, quella con cui si decretava l’esproprio dei beni della corona sabauda e la legittima restituzione al Paese.

Alle ore 11 di ieri, il 17 Dicembre 2017, la sua salma è stata tumulata nel Santuario di Vicoforte, a fianco della moglie Elena, anche lei arrivata in Italia pochi giorni prima. Pare che per trasportare la salma ci si sia avvalsi di un aereo dell’aeronautica militare, un volo di Stato per riportare in Italia questo personaggio storico di cui non sentivamo affatto la mancanza.

Giovanni Pesce, comandante partigiano, medaglia d’oro per la resistenza e senatore a vita, sui Savoia ebbe a dire: “Qualche esponente politico favorevole ai Savoia ha del resto proposto a questi eredi della monarchia italiana di rinnegare apertamente le non lievi colpe e le responsabilità dei loro predecessori, gravemente compromessi con il fascismo, in modo da rendere più agevole la difesa pubblica della modificazione della Costituzione e della tesi di un loro eventuale possibile rientro in Italia. Tuttavia, anche di fronte a questa proposta politica moderata, i Savoia si sono rifiutati di condannare o rinnegare alcunché dell’operato dei loro avi.”

Non ci sarebbe stato niente di male nel rientro di una salma, innocua come solo i morti sanno essere, nel nostro Paese. Ma dietro questo silenzio e la concessione, non si sa a quale titolo, di un volo militare, sembra quasi che si continui a celare una qualche forma di giustificazione per quei crimini.

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